</>  ====================================================  Chess  OPENINGS:


<#1>  Center Pawns moved first    


<#2>  Knights moved toward the Center    

(no)  not to the sides


<#3>  Bishops moved forward    

(no)  not to the sides


<#4>  Castling on the King's Side    

(x)  Protect the King !!

(no)  not on the Queen's Side - weaker position


<#4>  Protect your King    


<#5>  Center 4 Squares Control  =  Control the Center    

(x)  d4  e4  d5  e5

(x)  Center 4 Squares are the most important

(x)  Break up your Opponent's Center


<#5>  Pawn Center 4 Squares Openings    

(x)  d4  e4

(x)  c4 opens up the Queen

(cx:)  a4  f4  g4  f3  are the weakest moves


<#6>  Fully Developed Positions:  Able to Castle on Both Sides

( )  Option to Castle toward the Better Defensive Positions


<#6>  Development of Strong Positions with your Pieces


<#6>  10 to 12 Moves to Develop your Positions

(x)  Careful to not lose any Pawns.


</>  Pieces should be Moved, over moving Pawns


</>  Active Pieces    


</>  Opponent's Moves    


<x>  White moves First is a slight Advantage

(x)  White takes the Initiative.  (x)  White starts off as being on the Offensive.


</>  Develop your Pieces    

(x)  Pawn Development.

(cx:)  Bishop Development:  never through the Back Gate.


<x>  Avoid moving the same Piece Twice    


<x>  Capture the Offered Piece, if    

(x)  Greek Gift / the Trojan Horse proffered Pawn: 

(x)  OK to delay Development 1-2 moves.

(x)  White can take the delay, but Black cannot afford the wait.

(cx:)  > 2 Moves delay, do not take the Piece. 


Chess opening theory table - Wikipedia


</>  ==============================================  Chess  Openings  Options:


</>  f7 & f2 squares defended only by the Kings, are weak, & good targets for early attack.


</>  Pawn Chains     pawn structure    

2+ Pawns of the same color diagonally linked.  weakest point is the base.


</>  ===================================================  Classic  OPENINGS:



Chess Openings

1. e4 e5

Open Game · King's Gambit · Bishop's Opening · Vienna · Petrov · Latvian Gambit · Scotch · Giuoco Piano · Two Knights · Ruy Lopez · Philidor Defence


<#1>  1. e4  (White)  =  King's Pawn  Opening    


</>  1. e4 Defenses for Black1. …e5  1. …c5

</>  1. e4 Defenses for Black1. …e6  1. …c6  1. …d5


<#1>  Open Game  =  Double King's Pawn Game    

1. e4 e5    


<#1>  Ruy Lopez  Opening     Ruy Lopez - Wikipedia

=  the Spanish Opening  =  Spanish Game  =  Spanish Torture

1. e4 e5     2. Nf3 Nc6     3. Bb5    

16th-century Spanish priest - Ruy López de Segura  


</>  King's Gambit  ~>  Accepted / Declined    

1. e4 e5     2. f4     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Gambit


</>  King's Gambit Accepted: Rosentreter Gambit  <~  King's Gambit

1. e4 e5     2. f4 exf4     3. Nf3 g5 d4    


</>  Philidor Defence    

1. e4 e5     2. Nf3 d6    


</>  Two Knights Defence    

1. e4 e5     2. Nf3 Nc6     3. Bc4 Nf6    


</>  Four Knights' Game    

1. e4 e5     2. Nf3 Nc6     3. Nc3 Nf6    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Knights_Game


</>  Bishop's Opening    

1. e4 e5     2. Bc4    

Bishop's Opening used to be called "The Truth" back in the 19th century

to develop the bishop to a good square while keeping open the option of f2-f4.


</>  King's Bishop Gambit  =  King's Gambit Accepted: Bishop's Gambit

</>  Bishop's Gambit  =  King's Gambit Variation

1. e4 e5     2. f4 exf4     3. Bc4     


White develops the bishop to a strong square, aiming at f7. 

free the f1 square for the white king, in the event of a check on h4.

Pros:  The bishop is on a good square.  A knight is not yet on f3, so it won't be attacked by ...g5-g4

Cons:  Black has the possibility of checking on h4.  The bishop can be attacked by ...c6 and ...d5


</>  Vienna Game    

1. e4 e5     2. Nc3    


</>  Petroff Defense  =  Russian Defense    

1. e4 e5     2. Nf3 Nf6     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrov%27s_Defence


</>  Latvian Gambit    

1. e4 e5     2. Nf3 f5!?    


</>  Scotch Game    

1. e4 e5     2. Nf3 Nc6     3. d4    


</>  Giuoco Piano  Opening  "Slow Game"  "Quiet Game"

1. e4 e5     2. Nf3 Nc6     3. Bc4 Bc5     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuoco_Piano


</>  Morphy Defense    

 3...a6, which "puts the question" to the white bishop.  By far the most commonly played third move for Black.

Morphy Defence: alternatives to Closed Defence

After 3...a6, most commonly played line is Closed Defence, 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Be7, discussed in the two following sections.  4.Bxc6 (Exchange Variation)          https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruy_Lopez#Morphy_Defence:_3...a6


</>  Centre Gambit    

1. e4 e5     2. d4 exd4     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Center_Game


</>  Muzio Gambit  =  Polerio Gambit    

1. e4 e5     2. f4 exf4     3. Nf3 g5     4. Bc4 g4     5. 0-0    

opening line in the King's Gambit White sacrifices a knight for a large lead in development and attacking chances.

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muzio_Gambit>


1. e4 c5

Sicilian Defence · Closed Sicilian · Taimanov · Sveshnikov · Kan Sicilian · Sicilian Dragon · Scheveningen · Najdorf · Alapin


</>  Sicilian Defense     King's Pawn game

1. e4 c5     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence


</>  Sicilian Defense: Godiva Variation

1. e4 c5     2. Nf3 Nc6     3. d4 cxd4     4. Nxd4 Qb6    

From <https://www.chess.com/openings/Sicilian-Defense-Open-Godiva-Variation>


</>  Closed Sicilian    

1. e4 c5     2. Nc3    


</>  Sicilian - Taimanov    

1. e4 c5     2. Nf3 e6     3. d4 cxd4     4. Nxd4 Nc6    


</>  Sveshnikov Sicilian    

1. e4 c5     2. Nf3 Nc6     3. d4 cxd4     4. Nxd4 Nf6     5. Nc3 e5    


</>  Kan Sicilian    

1. e4 c5     2. Nf3 e6     3. d4 cxd4     4. Nxd4 a6    


</>  Sicilian Defence, Dragon Variation    

1. e4 c5     2. Nf3 d6     3. d4 cxd4     4. Nxd4 Nf6     5. Nc3 g6    


</>  Scheveningen Variation    

1. e4 c5     2. Nf3 d6     3. d4 cxd4     4. Nxd4 Nf6     5. Nc3 e6    


</>  Sicilian Najdorf    

1. e4 c5     2. Nf3 d6     3. d4 cxd4     4. Nxd4 Nf6     5. Nc3 a6    


</>  Sicilian: Alapin Variation    

1. e4 c5     2. c3    


1. e4 other

French Defence · Caro-Kann Defence · Pirc Defence · Alekhine Defence · Modern · Scandinavian · Nimzowitsch 


</>  French Defence    

1. e4 e6    


</>  Caro-Kann Defence    

1. e4 c6    


</>  Pirc Defense    

1. e4 d6    


</>  Alekhine's Defence    

1. e4 Nf6    


</>  Modern Defence    

1. e4 g6    


</>  Scandinavian Defence    

1. e4 d5    


</>  Nimzowitsch Defence    

1. e4 Nc6    


1. d4 d5

Closed Game · Queen's Gambit · Queen's Gambit Accepted · Queen's Gambit Declined · Chigorin · Slav · Semi-Slav · Marshall


Closed Game    

1. d4 d5    


</>  Queen's Gambit  Opening    

1. d4 d5     2. c4 c6     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen%27s_Gambit

( )  preponderance of force in the center

Black's d5 captured -> White Controls the Center

(cx:)  White Bishop will have to move twice in succession

(cx:)  Black Queen's Bishop has poor development


</>  Queen's Gambit  Accepted    

1. d4 d5     2. c4 dxc4     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen%27s_Gambit_Accepted


</>  Queen's Gambit  Declined    

1. d4 d5     2. c4 e6     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen%27s_Gambit_Declined


Chigorin Defence    

1. d4 d5     2. c4 Nc6    


Slav Defence    

1. d4 d5     2. c4 c6    


Semi-Slav Defence    

1. d4 d5     2. c4 e6     3. Nf3 Nf6     4. Nc3 c6    


Marshall Defence    

1. d4 Nf6     2. c4 d5    


1. d4 Nf6

Indian Defence · King's Indian · Nimzo-Indian · Queen's Indian · Grünfeld · Benoni · Budapest · Catalan


</>  Old Indian Defense  =  King's Indian Defence    

1. d4 Nf6     2. c4 d6     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Indian_Defense


</>  Nimzo-Indian Defence    

1. d4 Nf6     2. c4 e6     3. Nc3 Bb4    


</>  Queen's Indian Defence    

1. d4 Nf6     2. c4 e6    3. Nf3 b6    


</>  Grünfeld Defence    

1. d4 Nf6     2. c4 g6     3. Nc3 d5    


</>  Benoni Defence    

1. d4 Nf6     2. c4 c5    


</>  Budapest Gambit  =  Budapest Defence    

1. d4 Nf6     2. c4 e5     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budapest_Gambit


</>  Catalan Opening    

1. d4 Nf6     2. c4 e6     3. g3    


1. d4 other

Dutch Defence · Old Benoni Defence · Englund Gambit · English Defence · King's Indian Attack · Réti Opening


</>  1. d4  (White)  =  Queen's Pawn  Opening    

1. d4 d5     2. Nf3 Nf6     3. c4    

ix:  Queen + Bishop open to move.

1. d4 is just as strong as 1. e4


</>  1. d4  (Black)    

(cx:)  White Bishop will have to move twice in succession


</>  Dutch Defence    

1. d4 f5


</>  Old Benoni Defence    

1. d4 c5


</>  Modern Benoni Defense    

1. d4 Nf6     2. c4 c5     3. d5 e6     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_Benoni


</>  Englund Gambit    

1. d4 e5    

Black against White's 1.d4. Although similar in appearance to the Budapest Gambit, the Englund is not a sound opening and, therefore, not popular among stronger players. However, the Englund Gambit does contain traps that can catch many players off guard and result in quick wins.

From <https://www.chess.com/openings/Englund-Gambit>


</>  English Defence    

1. d4 b6


</>  King's Indian Attack    

1. Nf3 d5     2. g3


</>  Réti Opening    

1. Nf3     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R%C3%A9ti_Opening

white pressures the center with flank pawns, and minor pieces, instead of occupying it directly with the central pawns.

A later d2-d4 move may transpose to a 1.d4 opening (while avoiding certain lines), while a later c2-c4 move might transpose to the English Opening.


</>  Blackmar-Diemer Gambit  =  BDG    

1. d4 d5     2. e4 dxe4     3. Nc3     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackmar%E2%80%93Diemer_Gambit



a3 · Na3 · a4 · b3 · b4 · c3 · Nc3 · c4 · d3 · d4 · e3 · e4 · f3 · Nf3 · f4 · g3 · g4 · h3 · Nh3 · h4


</>  English Opening -> turns into the Queen's Gambit    

1. c4     English happens after White moves his c-pawn two squares.  By the 3rd Move


</>  King's Fianchetto Opening    

1. g3     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_Fianchetto_Opening


</>  ============================================  Chess  OPENING  OFFENSE:

Most Aggressive Ways to Open in Chess!

</>  Bird's Opening: Dutch, Williams Gambit    

1. f4 d5     2. e4     https://www.chess.com/openings/Birds-Opening-Dutch-Williams-Gambit


Openings covered     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclopaedia_of_Chess_Openings

Volume A:  Flank openings

English Opening     Benoni Defense     Dutch Defence     Réti Opening     Benko Gambit     Old Indian Defense     Bird's Opening     Irregular openings, etc.


</>  Open Opening Game    

( )  Time is more important

Volume C:  Open Games  and the French Defense

Ruy Lopez     French Defence     Petrov's Defence     King's Gambit     Philidor Defence     Italian (Giuoco Piano, Evans Gambit, and Two Knights)     Scotch Game     Four Knights Game, etc.


</>  Closed Opening Game    

( )  1st = Position.  2nd = Material.  ( )  Time is less important.

Volume D:  Closed Games  and  Semi-Closed Games

Queen's Gambit     Accepted     Declined (Slav, Orthodox, Tarrasch, Tartakower, Albin Countergambit, etc.)     Grünfeld Defence     Queen's Pawn Game, etc.


</>  ====================================================  Classic  GAMBITS:


</>  Gambits    

( )  Openings with a Pawn is Offered for Capture

( )  In order to break up the Center of the Opponent


</>  ============================================  Chess  OPENING  DEFENSE:


</>  Semi-Open Opening Games    

Volume B:  Semi-Open Games  other than the French Defense

Sicilian Defence     Caro-Kann Defence     Pirc Defence     Alekhine's Defence     Modern Defense     Scandinavian Defense, etc.


Volume E:  Indian Defenses    

Nimzo-Indian Defence     Queen's Indian Defense     King's Indian Defence     Catalan Opening     Bogo-Indian Defence     Old Indian Defense     Grünfeld Defence


<cx:>  ===================================================  WEAK  Openings:


<cx:>  Moving the Same Piece Twice, before Full Development


<cx:>  Queen moved out too early    

( )  first bring out Knight1, Bishop1, Knight2, Bishop2, then Castling.

(cx:)  not supported by Pieces out and doing something


<cx:>  ============================================  Chess  OPENING ERRORS:


<cx:>  First Move Errors    

(cx:)  1. f3

20 possible first moves in chess: each of the eight pawns can move one or two squares forward, and each of the two knights has two squares it can go to.


<cx:>  Bongcloud Attack  =  Bongcloud Openingirregular chess opening:

1. e4 e5     2. Ke2?

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bongcloud_Attack>

March 16, 2021  Norway's Magnus Carlsen and the United States' Hikaru Nakamura at the Meltwater Champions Chess Tour.  grandmasters Carlsen moving his king's pawn up to e4, a popular first move; Nakamura mirrored it. things got silly: Carlsen next moved his king up to where the pawn had been, opening Bongcloud Attack "one of chess' worst possible opening moves. Nakamura burst into laughter — and mimicked it. Both Carlsen and Nakamura had already qualified for the next stage of the tournament,  just for laughs, ended in a draw.


</>  =======================================================  Chess  ONLINE:


From <https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Chess_Opening_Theory/1._d4/1...d5/2._e4/2...dxe4/3._Nc3>

Chess Opening Theory/1. e4/1...e5/2. Nf3/2...Nc6/3. Bb5 - Wikibooks


</>  5 Best Chess Opening Traps in the Sicilian Defense

From <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMQwnMR6OVk>


<x>  =============================================  Chess  BOOKS  OPENINGS:


( ) Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings    

ECO volume E. The first line of moves means that it contains openings beginning 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6. The second line means it contains openings with 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6, without an early d7–d5.

The Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings (or ECO) is a classification system for the opening moves in chess. It is presented as a five-volume book collection (now also a computer database) describing chess openings. The moves were taken from hundreds of thousands of games between masters, from published analysis in the Chess Informant since 1966, and then compiled by notable chess players. The main editor is Aleksandar Matanović. Both the ECO and the Chess Informant are published by the Serbian company Šahovski Informator (Chess Informant). These openings are typically provided in an ECO table that concisely presents the best opening lines.

The books contain only a small amount of text, which is in eight languages. The bulk of the book consists of diagrams of positions and chess moves in International figurine algebraic notation, with special symbols for comments about moves (see Chess annotation symbols).

Instead of the traditional names for the openings, ECO has developed a unique coding system that has also been adopted by other chess publications. There are five main categories, "A" to "E", each of which is divided into one hundred subcategories.

ECO code is a registered trademark of Chess Informant.

2 Main ECO codes



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